evidence-based blog of Filippo Dibari

Archive for the ‘Over-nutrition’ Category

Do Vegetarians Get Enough Protein?

In Over-nutrition on April 13, 2019 at 6:08 am

from NutritionFacts webage

The only nutrient Americans may be more deficient in than fiber is potassium. See 98% of American Diets Potassium-Deficient. For more on how S.A.D. the Standard American Diet is, see Nation’s Diet in Crisis.

Americans eating meat-free diets average higher intakes of nearly every nutrient. See my video Nutrient-Dense Approach to Weight Management.

Isn’t animal protein higher quality protein, though? See D Greger’s videos:

For more on protein, see: Plant Protein Preferable and Prostate Cancer Survival: The A/V Ratio.

And for a few on fiber:

If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to Dr Greger’s videos for free by clicking here.

WHO/Cochrane/Cornell Summer Institute for Systematic Reviews in Nutrition for Global Policy Making

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on April 12, 2019 at 12:12 pm

source: Cornell Uni webpage.

July 15 – July 26, 2019, Cornell University, Ithaca campus

Overview

This unique institute on the Cornell University campus brings together experts from the World Health Organization (WHO), Cochrane, and Cornell University to train participants in the development of systematic reviews of nutrition interventions in populations.

Systematic reviews following the Cochrane methodology are used to ensure that WHO recommendations are based on sound evidence. Participants will learn to apply the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) tool to assess the overall quality of evidence.

Who should attend

The institute is intended for nutrition scientists and practitioners with interest in the application of scientific evidence in policy making. Candidates must have a university degree in health or social sciences with interest in nutrition interventions for public health and be willing to be registered as authors in a Cochrane Group.

Applications from women and from nationals of low- and middle-income countries are particularly encouraged.

Program benefits

In this program, you will:

  • update and develop your technical skills and knowledge in systematic reviews of nutrition and nutrition-sensitive interventions;
  • build understanding of the process for global policy making, nutrition, and evidence assessment and its challenges;
  • complete hands-on training in the development of Cochrane systematic reviews on a topic of immediate global health relevance in nutrition and public health; and
  • develop confidence with the review methods and foster development of professional networks with fellow participants and faculty

In the news

Summer course trains experts in WHO policies, Institute launched in 2014

The following article from the Cornell Chronicle, published July 8, 2014, describes our experiences in the first year of the Institute. The 2018 Summer Institute was our 5th Institute.

More than 30 nutrition experts from around the globe gathered at Cornell July 7-18, 2014, for hands-on training in World Health Organization (WHO) procedures to retrieve, summarize and assess reliable, current evidence to inform WHO’s recommendations for nutrition and public health policy.

Institute focuses on global nutrition policy impact

When the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University hosted the 4th annual Summer Institute for Systematic Reviews in Nutrition for Global Policy Making  from July 24 to August 4, 2017, its participants included 29 experts from around the world, and 10 faculty members from the World Health Organization (WHO), Cornell University and Cochrane.

Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on March 23, 2019 at 8:22 pm

Published: January 16, 2019 on The Lancet

Executive Summary 

Food systems have the potential to nurture human health and support environmental sustainability, however our current trajectories threaten both. The EAT–Lancet Commission addresses the need to feed a growing global population a healthy diet while also defining sustainable food systems that will minimise damage to our planet.   

The Commission quantitively describes a universal healthy reference diet, based on an increase in consumption of healthy foods (such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, and nuts), and a decrease in consumption of unhealthy foods (such as red meat, sugar, and refined grains) that would provide major health benefits, and also increase the likelihood of attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals.

This is set against the backdrop of defined scientific boundaries that would ensure a safe operating space within six Earth systems, towards sustaining a healthy planet.  

The EAT–Lancet Commission is the first of a series of initiatives on nutrition led by The Lancet in 2019, followed by the Commission on the Global Syndemic of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change. Find out more in our Editorial.

Composition and Properties of Aquafaba: Water Recovered from Commercially Canned Chickpeas.

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on September 30, 2018 at 4:37 am

by Shim YY1, Mustafa R2, Shen J2, Ratanapariyanuch K2, Reaney MJT3.

J Vis Exp. 2018 Feb 10;(132). doi: 10.3791/56305.

Abstract

Chickpea and other pulses are commonly sold as canned products packed in a thick solution or a brine. This solution has recently been shown to produce stable foams and emulsions, and can act as a thickener.

Recently interest in this product has been enhanced through the internet where it is proposed that this solution, now called aquafaba by a growing community, can be used a replacement for egg and milk protein.

As aquafaba is both new and being developed by an internet based community little is known of its composition or properties. Aquafaba was recovered from 10 commercial canned chickpea products and correlations among aquafaba composition, density, viscosity and foaming properties were investigated.

Proton NMR was used to characterize aquafaba composition before and after ultrafiltration through membranes with different molecular weight cut offs (MWCOs of 3, 10, or 50 kDa). A protocol for electrophoresis, and peptide mass fingerprinting is also presented. Those methods provided valuable information regarding components responsible for aquafaba functional properties.

This information will allow the development of practices to produce standard commercial aquafaba products and may help consumers select products of superior or consistent utility.

Aquafaba, wastewater from chickpea canning, functions as an egg replacer in sponge cake

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on September 30, 2018 at 4:33 am
First published: 07 May 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13813

Summary

Aquafaba, the viscous liquid resulting from cooking chickpeas in water is typically discarded. However, this solution is now widely used by the vegan community as an egg replacement that adds texture to food products, such as mayonnaise, pudding, ice cream and baked goods.

Sponge cake was prepared with either egg white or aquafaba derived from ten different brands of canned chickpea and the texture and colour were compared. Aquafaba obtained from each chickpea can produced foam which differed in both properties and stability.

In addition, aquafaba from some brands provided comparable foam volume and stability to that achieved with egg white.

The colour and texture of sponge cake made with either egg white or aquafaba were similar and acceptable, but cakes prepared with aquafaba were less springy, and less cohesive than cake that included egg white.

Based on our results, it appears that aquafaba has potential to replace egg white in eggless cake recipes.

Internship Opportunities with the WFP – Ethiopia

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on September 5, 2018 at 7:00 pm

Background

Ethiopia has made important development gains over the past two decades, reducing poverty and expanding investments in basic social services. However, food insecurity and under-nutrition still hinder economic growth. In 2015 it ranked 174 out of 188 in the UNDP Human Development Report. The country is also home to the second largest refugee population on the continent; it currently hosts 909,000 registered refugees from South Sudan, Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Kenya. 2016 was a challenging year for Ethiopia as it suffered from the worst El Niño impact in the last 50 years. The onset of El Niño combined with failed Belg (spring harvest) and Meher (main harvest) rains in 2015 left 10.2 million people in need of emergency food and nutrition assistance. While the Government and partners averted a major humanitarian catastrophe, the drought has left a negative legacy on many families, who lost livestock and other productive assets. The residual needs from the past year have been compounded by a new and devastating drought which hit Ethiopia and other parts of the Horn of Africa in early 2017. In  August 2017, the Government of Ethiopia released the Mid-Year Humanitarian Requirements Document which outlined the need to support 8.5 million people with emergency food, nutrition, health, water and education programmes. WFP supports the Ethiopian Government through a range of life-saving and resilience-building activities as well as providing assistance in refugee camps. We use food, cash, nutrition assistance and innovative approaches to improve nutrition, empower women, build local capacities and enhance preparedness to climate-related shocks.

 

Opportunity – WFP Ethiopia Country Office seeks (1) graduate (BSc), and post-graduate (MSc) students looking for field-based dissertation topics, (2) BSc and MSc students already graduated within a year, looking for opportunity hands-on work experience, and (3) researchers looking for settings where to develop operational research topics. Background: Nutrition/Public Health/Epidemiology, Food Technology, Communication, Social Sciences, Logistics, Engineering, Economy and any other field related to food and nutrition.

 

More information

  • What? The interns will be integrated into WFP existing and/or about-to-start programmes. The potential areas include (1) integrated nutrition and food security surveillance, (2) treatment of moderate acute malnutrition, (3) development of social behavioural change communication to reduce stunting and wasting, (4) interlinkages between HIV and malnutrition, (5) food fortification, (6) nutrition advocacy, strategic evidence-based policy- and decision-making, (7) social protection in food insecure households.
  • When? Candidate can apply anytime during the year.
  • Where? According to the Terms of Reference (ToR) and the deliverables of the internship, the candidate will be placed either at WFP Country Office (Addis Abeba) and/or at the provincial Sub-Offices.
  • Supervised by who? Administratively the interns will be supervised by a WFP line manager. The ToR and the deliverables will be agreed by and with the candidate, eventually with the tutor of the institution of origin and WFP.
  • For how long? The duration of the internship will depend on the nature of the ToR and its deliverables.
  • Which kind of support? WFP has limited resources for support to internship programmes. Therefore, candidates are encouraged to rely on their own means of support for living, and international / national travel costs. WFP can cover at least the intern health insurance. Additional WFP support can be put under consideration in case of strong candidatures.
  • I am interested. How to apply? For an initial contact, get in touch with both Filippo Dibari (filippo.dibari@wfp.org) and Pauline Akabwai (pauline.akabwai@wfp.org). Note that the email subject should be reading exactlyinternship at WFP’). Be ready to submit curriculum vitae (one page max), provide specific evidence of your skills, undertake a written test and an interview, share reference contact details.

 

For further reading – Ethiopia nutrition profile – source: Global Nutrition Report 2017 (link  or under request) and WFP Ethiopia Country Profile (Link)

Vegetarianism and cardiometabolic disease risk factors: Differences between South Asian and US adults

In Over-nutrition on August 11, 2018 at 7:31 am

Jaacks LM1, Kapoor D2, Singh K2, Narayan KM3, Ali MK3, Kadir MM4, Mohan V5, Tandon N6, Prabhakaran D2.

Nutrition. 2016 Sep;32(9):975-84. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2016.02.011. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

(downlowad)

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Cardiometabolic diseases are increasing disproportionately in South Asia compared with other regions of the world despite high levels of vegetarianism. This unexpected discordance may be explained by differences in the healthfulness of vegetarianand non-vegetarian diets in South Asia compared with the United States. The aim of this study was to compare the food group intake of vegetarians with non-vegetarians in South Asia and the United States and to evaluate associations between vegetarianism and cardiometabolic disease risk factors (overweight/obesity, central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, high triacylglycerols, high low-density lipoprotein, low high-density lipoprotein, and high Framingham Heart Score).

METHODS:

Using cross-sectional data from adults (age 20-69 y) in South Asia (Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South-Asia [CARRS] 2010-2011; N = 15 665) and the United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006; N = 2159), adherence to a vegetarian diet was assessed using food propensity questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and predicted margins (e.g., adjusted prevalence of the outcomes).

RESULTS:

One-third (33%; n = 4968) of adults in the South Asian sample were vegetarian compared with only 2.4% (n = 59) in the US sample. Among South Asians, vegetarians more frequently ate dairy, legumes, vegetables, fruit, desserts, and fried foods than non-vegitarians (all P < 0.05). Among Americans, vegetarians more frequently ate legumes, fruit, and whole grains, and less frequently ate refined cereals, desserts, fried foods, fruit juice, and soft drinks than non-vegetarians (all P < 0.05). After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, education, tobacco, alcohol, and also city in CARRS), South Asian vegetarians were slightly less frequently overweight/obese compared with non-vegetarians: 49% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45%-53%) versus 53% (95% CI, 51%-56%), respectively; whereas US vegetarians were considerably less frequently overweight/obese compared with non-vegetarians: 48% (95% CI, 32%-63%) versus 68% (95% CI, 65%-70%), respectively. Furthermore, US vegetarians were less likely to exhibit central obesity than non-vegetarians: 62% (95% CI, 43%-78%) versus 78% (95% CI, 76%-80%), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is greater divergence between vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets in the United States than in South Asia, and US vegetarians have more consistently healthier food group intakes than South Asian vegetarians. Vegetarians in both populations have a lower probability of overweight/obesity compared with non-vegetarians. The strength of this association may be stronger for US vegetarian diets, which were also protective against central obesity.

Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on August 11, 2018 at 7:12 am

Craig WJ1, Mangels AR; American Dietetic Association.

(download pdf)

Abstract

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods.

This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence- based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes.

The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians.

Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals.

The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients, food purchase and preparation, and dietary modifications to meet their needs.

Global Event: ACCELERATING THE END OF HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on August 10, 2018 at 5:25 am

source: conference web page

An IFPRI-FAO global event
November 28-30, 2018
Bangkok, Thailand
Improving food security and nutrition is critical to meeting the Sustainable  Development Goals (SDGs), but the world is not on track to end hunger and malnutrition by 2030.
How can we accelerate progress in transforming our agri-food systems to meet the needs of the hungry and malnourished?
To answer this question, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are organizing a global event on Accelerating the End of Hunger and Malnutrition on November 28-30, 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand
The event will share evidence and lessons learned from around the world on food system transformation for reducing hunger and malnutrition; explore innovations to build further momentum and accelerate progress; and identify opportunities for scaling up successful actions.
For more information, please go to the conference website.

2018 Global food policy report

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on July 13, 2018 at 9:50 pm

from IFPRI web-page

Free Book on global – Pages: 150
IFPRI’s flagship report reviews the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions of 2017, and highlights challenges and opportunities for 2018 at the global and regional levels. This year’s report looks at the impacts of greater global integration—including the movement of goods, investment, people, and knowledge—and the threat of current antiglobalization pressures. Drawing on recent research, IFPRI researchers and other distinguished food policy experts consider a range of timely topics:

 

■ How can the global food system deliver food security for all in the face of the radical changes taking place today?

■ What is the role of trade in improving food security, nutrition, and sustainability?

■ How can international investment best contribute to local food security and better food systems in developing countries?

■ Do voluntary and involuntary migration increase or decrease food security in source countries and host countries?

■ What opportunities does greater data availability open up for improving agriculture and food security?

■ How does reform of developed-country farm support policies affect global food security?

■ How can global governance structures better address problems of food security and nutrition?

■ What major trends and events affected food security and nutrition across the globe in 2017?

The 2018 Global Food Policy Report also presents data tables and visualizations for several key food policy indicators, including country-level data on hunger, agricultural spending and research investment, and projections for future agricultural production and consumption.  In addition to illustrative figures, tables, and a timeline of food policy events in 2017, the report includes the results of a global opinion poll on globalization and the current state of food policy.

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