evidence-based blog of Filippo Dibari

Archive for the ‘Under-nutrition’ Category

Unmissable (free) book: Nourishing Millions

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on June 24, 2017 at 12:43 pm

From IFPRI webpage


Download the book

The stories in this book are diverse, spanning five decades and playing out in different arenas, from local to global. They take place in developing countries all over the world, and they involve many sectors and disciplines beyond nutrition itself, including health, agriculture, education, social protection, and water and sanitation. Most importantly, they paint a nuanced picture of success as a context-specific achievement that may, or may not, endure into the future.

WHO: e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA), now on a mobile app

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on June 16, 2017 at 8:26 pm

from WHO webpage

eLENA mobile phone application

Since 2011, the WHO e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA) has provided more than 1 million users with evidence-informed guidance and related information for nutrition interventions. Though the reach of eLENA continues to expand through a steady increase in the number of website users, there is a recognized need for access to eLENA content in settings without regular or reliable internet access.

In order to address this unmet need, the Nutrition Policy and Scientific Advice Unit of the WHO Department of Nutrition for Health and Development has developed an eLENA mobile phone application, eLENAmobile, which delivers much of the content of eLENA to smartphones and can be accessed anywhere – no internet connection required.

Download eLENAmobile for iPhones and Android smartphones now, at Google Play or the Apple App Store.

Free training @Cornell Uni: Food Policy for Developing Countries

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on June 11, 2017 at 11:52 am

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UNICEF/WHO/WB: Levels and Trends in Child Malnutrition

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on June 7, 2017 at 7:02 pm

source: World Bank webpage

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(download)

In May 2017, UNICEF, WHO and World Bank Group released the 2017 edition of the joint child malnutrition estimates for the 1990–2016 period, representing the most recent global and regional figures. A suite of on-line interactive dashboards were developed to enable users to explore the entire time-series (1990 – 2016) of global and regional estimates of prevalence and number affected for stunting, overweight, wasting and severe wasting. These estimates are presented by various regional and income group country classifications used by various agencies including the United Nations, UNICEF, WHO and The World Bank Group.

Note: Global estimates refer to the aggregate of the UN regions.

Nutrition Key to Developing Africa’s “Grey Matter Infrastructure”

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on May 29, 2017 at 6:13 am

from IPSnews

AfDB President Akinwumi Adesina adressing delegates at the nutrition event while Ambassador Kenneth Quinn, World Food Prize Foundation, listens. Credit: Friday Phiri/IPS


AHMEDABAD, India, May 24 2017 (IPS) – Developing Africa’s ‘grey matter infrastructure’ through multi-sector investments in nutrition has been identified as a game changer for Africa’s sustainable development.

Experts here at the 2017 African Development Bank’s Annual Meetings say investing in physical infrastructure alone cannot help Africa to move forward without building brainpower.

“We can’t say Africa is rising when half of our children are stunted.” –Muhammad Ali Pate

“We can repair a bridge, we know how to do that, we can fix a port, we know how to do it, we can fix a rail, we know how to do that, but we don’t know how to fix brain cells once they are gone, that’s why we need to change our approach to dealing with nutrition matters in Africa,” said AfDB President, Akinwumi Adesina, pointing out that stunting alone costs Africa 25 billion dollars annually.

Malnutrition – the cause of half of child deaths worldwide – continues to rob generations of Africans of the chance to grow to their full physical and cognitive potential, hugely impacting not only health outcomes, but also economic development.

Malnutrition is unacceptably high on the continent, with 58 million or 36 percent of children under the age of five chronically undernourished (suffering from stunting)—and in some countries, as many as one out of every two children suffer from stunting. The effects of stunting are irreversible, impacting the ability of children’s bodies and brains to grow to their full potential.

On a panel discussion Developing Africa’s Grey Matter Infrastructure: Addressing Africa’s Nutrition Challenges” moderated by IFPRI’s Rajul Pandya-Lorch, experts highlighted the importance of urgently fighting the scourge of malnutrition.

Laura Landis of the World Food Programme (WFP) said the cost of inaction is dramatic. “We have to make an economic argument on why we need action,” she said. “The WFP is helping, in cooperation with the African Union and the AfDB, to collect the data that gets not just the Health Minister moving, but also Heads of State or Ministers of Finance.”

The idea is to get everyone involved and not leave nutrition to agriculture and/or health ministries alone. And panelists established that there is indeed a direct link between productivity and growth of the agriculture sector and improved nutrition.

Baffour Agyeman of the John Kuffuor Foundation puts it simply: “It has become evident that it is the quality of food and not the quantity thereof that is more important,” calling for awareness not to end at high level conferences but get to the grassroots.

Assisting African governments to build strong and robust economies is accordingly a key priority for the AfDB. But recognizing the potential that exists in the continent’s vast human capital, the bank included nutrition as a focus area under its five operational priorities – the High 5s.

And to mobilise support at the highest level, the African Leaders for Nutrition (ALN) initiative was launched last year, bringing together Heads of State committed to ending malnutrition in their countries.

As a key partner of this initiative, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation foresees improved accountability with such an initiative in place. “ALN is a way to make the fight against malnutrition a central development issue that Ministers of Finance and Heads of State take seriously and hold all sectors accountable for,” said Shawn Baker, Nutrition Director at the Foundation.

However, African Ministers of Finance want to see better coordination and for governments to play a leading role in such initiatives to achieve desired results. “Cooperation and coordination are key between government and development partners,” said Sierra Leone’s Finance and Economic Development Minister Momodu Kargbo. “Development partners disregard government systems when implementing programmes whereas they should align and carefully regard existing government institutions and ways of working.”

Notwithstanding the overarching theme of Africa rising, Muhammad Ali Pate, CEO of Big Win Philanthropy, says, “We can’t say Africa is rising when half of our children are stunted.” He pointed out the need to close the mismatch between the continent’s sustained GDP growth and improved livelihood of its people.

With the agreed global SDG agenda, Gerda Verburg, Scaling Up Nutrition Movement Coordinator sees nutrition as a core of achieving the goals. “Without better nutrition you will not end poverty, without better nutrition you will not end gender inequality, without better nutrition you will not improve health, find innovative approaches, or peace and stability, better nutrition is the core,” she says.

Therefore, developing Grey Matter Infrastructure is key to improving the quality of life for the people of Africa. But it won’t happen without leadership to encourage investments in agriculture and nutrition, and more importantly, resource mobilization for this purpose.

Fan of Dr.Greger? Cannot miss this then. Simply you can’t

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on May 21, 2017 at 7:55 am

Behind the Scenes at NutritionFacts.org

How does Dr. Greger come up with his videos?

Unmissable – The 2017 Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals: a new visual guide to data and development

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on April 20, 2017 at 7:48 am
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from the World Bank website

Atlas-Cover

The 2017 Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals: a new visual guide to data and development.

<!– /sites/all/themes/blogs/templates/header/js/jquery-1.4.4.min.js –>The World Bank is pleased to release the 2017 Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals. With over 150 maps and data visualizations, the new publication charts the progress societies are making towards the 17 SDGs.

The Atlas is part of the World Development Indicators (WDI) family of products that offer high-quality, cross-country comparable statistics about development and people’s lives around the globe. You can:

The 17 Sustainable Development Goals and their associated 169 targets are ambitious. They will be challenging to implement, and challenging to measure. The Atlas offers the perspective of experts in the World Bank on each of the SDGs.

Training: 4th Annual Summer Institute for systematic reviews in nutrition for global policy-making

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on March 17, 2017 at 3:14 pm
 

4th Annual Summer Institute for systematic reviews in nutrition for
global policy-making

 

World Health Organization (WHO)/Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Collaborating Centre on implementation research in nutrition and global policy and Cochrane

Date: 24 July to 4 August 2017
Venue: Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University Campus, Ithaca, NY, United States of America

Scope and purpose

The World Health Organization (WHO) follows a guideline development process, described in detail in the
WHO Handbook for Guideline Development (2nd edition), overseen by the Guidelines Review Committee (GRC) established by the Director-General in 2007. The WHO Guidelines Review Committee ensures that WHO guidelines are of a high methodological quality, developed using a transparent and explicit process, and are informed on high quality systematic reviews of the evidence using state-of–the art systematic search strategies, synthesis, quality assessments and methods.

The WHO Department of Nutrition for Health and Development has worked with the Cochrane editorial office and various groups within the Cochrane to produce systematic reviews for WHO nutrition guidelines since 2010. This allows for faster and prioritized completion of systematic reviews on the effects of interventions that contribute towards guideline development.

Cochrane is an international network of more than 28 000 people from over 120 countries working together to help health-care providers, policy-makers, and patients, their advocates and carers, make well-informed decisions about health care. This collaboration hosts the Cochrane Library and CENTRAL, the largest collection of records of randomized controlled trials in the world. On 24 January 2011, WHO awarded Cochrane a seat on the World Health Assembly, allowing the collaboration to provide input on WHO health resolutions.

In order to further increase capacity in systematic review methodology among nutrition scientists and practitioners, the WHO/PAHO Collaborating Centre on implementation research in nutrition and global policy, in collaboration with Cochrane has convened the Summer Institute for systematic reviews in nutrition for global policy-making in Ithaca, NY, United States of America since 2014. The 4th Annual Summer Institute will be held on 24 July to 4 August 2017.

This unique institute will bring together experts from WHO, PAHO, Cochrane, and Cornell University to train participants in the development of systematic reviews of nutrition interventions in public health following the Cochrane methodology. Participants will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) tool to assess the overall quality of evidence.

The WHO/Cochrane/Cornell University Summer Institute for systematic reviews in nutrition for global policy-making is intended for nutrition scientists and practitioners from various fields with interest in the application of scientific evidence in policy making. Applications from women and from nationals of low- and middle-income countries are particularly encouraged. Partial financial support is available for limited number of accepted participants.

The objectives of this programme are:

• To update and develop technical skills and knowledge in systematic reviews of nutrition and nutrition-sensitive interventions;
• To build understanding of the process for global policy making in nutrition, and evidence assessment and its challenges;
• To complete hands-on training in the development of Cochrane systematic reviews on a topic of immediate global health relevance in nutrition and public health.

For additional information, please see the Summer Institute website (here). To apply, please submit your application materials to DNSDirector@cornell.edu at your earliest convenience. The Institute will process applications as they are received, therefore on a rolling basis, and will close the class when the limit of participants is reached. Once accepted, participants will receive a link with additional information for registration.

For further information and specific application instructions, visit this link: http://who-cochrane-cornell-summer-institute.nutrition.cornell.edu/

 

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Associations of dietary diversity scores and micronutrient status in adolescent Mozambican girls

In Under-nutrition on March 17, 2017 at 3:08 pm

Korkalo, L., Erkkola, M., Heinonen, A.E. et al. Eur J Nutr (2017) 56: 1179.

(download for free)

Abstract

 

Purpose

In low-income settings, dietary diversity scores (DDSs) often predict the micronutrient adequacy of diets, but little is known about whether they predict levels of biochemical indicators of micronutrient status.

Methods

In 2010, we studied two samples of non-pregnant 14- to 19-year-old girls in central Mozambique, the first in January–February (‘hunger season’; n = 227) and the second in May–June (harvest season; n = 223). In this paper, we examined whether a low Women’s Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS) predicts a low concentration of haemoglobin, serum ferritin, zinc, and folate, and plasma retinol in adolescent Mozambican girls. We constructed three scores: WDDS based on 24-h recalls, WDDS15g based on 24-h recall and employing a 15 g limit, and 7dWDDS based on 7-day food frequency questionnaires. Logistic regression models, stratified by season, were used to estimate the odds of having a low concentration of a status indicator (≤25th percentile of the season-specific distribution or cut-off from the literature) in those with a low score compared to those with a higher score.

Results

In January–February, after adjusting for confounders, a low (≤3) WDDS and a low (≤5) 7dWDDS were each associated with higher odds of having low serum zinc compared to having a higher score, regardless of which of the two types of cut-offs for serum zinc was used. These associations were not present in May–June.

Conclusions

Our data from Mozambique suggest that dietary diversity is associated with serum zinc, but this association seems to be limited to the hunger season.

Carrying capacity of U.S. agricultural land: Ten diet scenarios

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on November 27, 2016 at 3:33 am

Peters CJ, Picardy J, Darrouzet-Nardi AF, Wilkins JL, Griffin TS, et al. 2016. Carrying capacity of U.S. agricultural land: Ten diet scenarios. Elem Sci Anth 4: 000116

(download here)

Abstract

Strategies for environmental sustainability and global food security must account for dietary change. Using a biophysical simulation model we calculated human carrying capacity under ten diet scenarios. The scenarios included two reference diets based on actual consumption and eight “Healthy Diet” scenarios that complied with nutritional recommendations but varied in the level of meat content. We considered the U.S. agricultural land base and accounted for losses, processing conversions, livestock feed needs, suitability of land for crops or grazing, and land productivity.

Annual per capita land requirements ranged from 0.13 to 1.08 ha person-1 year-1 across the ten diet scenarios. Carrying capacity varied from 402 to 807 million persons; 1.3 to 2.6 times the 2010 U.S. population.

Carrying capacity was generally higher for scenarios with less meat and highest for the lacto-vegetarian diet. However, the carrying capacity of the vegan diet was lower than two of the healthy omnivore diet scenarios.

Sensitivity analysis showed that carrying capacity estimates were highly influenced by starting assumptions about the proportion of cropland available for cultivated cropping.

Population level dietary change can contribute substantially to meeting future food needs, though ongoing agricultural research and sustainable management practices are still needed to assure sufficient production levels.

 

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