evidence-based blog of Filippo Dibari

Posts Tagged ‘ethiopia’

Internship Opportunities with the WFP – Ethiopia

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on September 5, 2018 at 7:00 pm

Background

Ethiopia has made important development gains over the past two decades, reducing poverty and expanding investments in basic social services. However, food insecurity and under-nutrition still hinder economic growth. In 2015 it ranked 174 out of 188 in the UNDP Human Development Report. The country is also home to the second largest refugee population on the continent; it currently hosts 909,000 registered refugees from South Sudan, Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Kenya. 2016 was a challenging year for Ethiopia as it suffered from the worst El Niño impact in the last 50 years. The onset of El Niño combined with failed Belg (spring harvest) and Meher (main harvest) rains in 2015 left 10.2 million people in need of emergency food and nutrition assistance. While the Government and partners averted a major humanitarian catastrophe, the drought has left a negative legacy on many families, who lost livestock and other productive assets. The residual needs from the past year have been compounded by a new and devastating drought which hit Ethiopia and other parts of the Horn of Africa in early 2017. In  August 2017, the Government of Ethiopia released the Mid-Year Humanitarian Requirements Document which outlined the need to support 8.5 million people with emergency food, nutrition, health, water and education programmes. WFP supports the Ethiopian Government through a range of life-saving and resilience-building activities as well as providing assistance in refugee camps. We use food, cash, nutrition assistance and innovative approaches to improve nutrition, empower women, build local capacities and enhance preparedness to climate-related shocks.

 

Opportunity – WFP Ethiopia Country Office seeks (1) graduate (BSc), and post-graduate (MSc) students looking for field-based dissertation topics, (2) BSc and MSc students already graduated within a year, looking for opportunity hands-on work experience, and (3) researchers looking for settings where to develop operational research topics. Background: Nutrition/Public Health/Epidemiology, Food Technology, Communication, Social Sciences, Logistics, Engineering, Economy and any other field related to food and nutrition.

 

More information

  • What? The interns will be integrated into WFP existing and/or about-to-start programmes. The potential areas include (1) integrated nutrition and food security surveillance, (2) treatment of moderate acute malnutrition, (3) development of social behavioural change communication to reduce stunting and wasting, (4) interlinkages between HIV and malnutrition, (5) food fortification, (6) nutrition advocacy, strategic evidence-based policy- and decision-making, (7) social protection in food insecure households.
  • When? Candidate can apply anytime during the year.
  • Where? According to the Terms of Reference (ToR) and the deliverables of the internship, the candidate will be placed either at WFP Country Office (Addis Abeba) and/or at the provincial Sub-Offices.
  • Supervised by who? Administratively the interns will be supervised by a WFP line manager. The ToR and the deliverables will be agreed by and with the candidate, eventually with the tutor of the institution of origin and WFP.
  • For how long? The duration of the internship will depend on the nature of the ToR and its deliverables.
  • Which kind of support? WFP has limited resources for support to internship programmes. Therefore, candidates are encouraged to rely on their own means of support for living, and international / national travel costs. WFP can cover at least the intern health insurance. Additional WFP support can be put under consideration in case of strong candidatures.
  • I am interested. How to apply? For an initial contact, get in touch with both Filippo Dibari (filippo.dibari@wfp.org) and Pauline Akabwai (pauline.akabwai@wfp.org). Note that the email subject should be reading exactlyinternship at WFP’). Be ready to submit curriculum vitae (one page max), provide specific evidence of your skills, undertake a written test and an interview, share reference contact details.

 

For further reading – Ethiopia nutrition profile – source: Global Nutrition Report 2017 (link  or under request) and WFP Ethiopia Country Profile (Link)

Designing programs to improve diets for maternal and child health: estimating costs and potential dietary impacts of nutrition-sensitive programs in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and India

In Under-nutrition on July 10, 2018 at 6:21 am

from: Health Policy and Planning, Volume 33, Issue 4, 1 May 2018, Pages 564–573

William A Masters Katherine L Rosettie Sarah Kranz Goodarz Danaei Patrick Webb Dariush Mozaffarianthe Global Nutrition and Policy Consortium.

(download here)

Abstract

Improving maternal and child nutrition in resource-poor settings requires effective use of limited resources, but priority-setting is constrained by limited information about program costs and impacts, especially for interventions designed to improve diet quality.

This study utilized a mixed methods approach to identify, describe and estimate the potential costs and impacts on child dietary intake of 12 nutrition-sensitive programs in Ethiopia, Nigeria and India.

These potential interventions included conditional livestock and cash transfers, media and education, complementary food processing and sales, household production and food pricing programs. Components and costs of each program were identified through a novel participatory process of expert regional consultation followed by validation and calibration from literature searches and comparison with actual budgets. Impacts on child diets were determined by estimating of the magnitude of economic mechanisms for dietary change, comprehensive reviews of evaluations and effectiveness for similar programs, and demographic data on each country.

Across the 12 programs, total cost per child reached (net present value, purchasing power parity adjusted) ranged very widely: from 0.58 to 2650 USD/year among five programs in Ethiopia; 2.62 to 1919 USD/year among four programs in Nigeria; and 27 to 586 USD/year among three programs in India.

When impacts were assessed, the largest dietary improvements were for iron and zinc intakes from a complementary food production program in Ethiopia (increases of 17.7 mg iron/child/day and 7.4 mg zinc/child/day), vitamin A intake from a household animal and horticulture production program in Nigeria (335 RAE/child/day), and animal protein intake from a complementary food processing program in Nigeria (20.0 g/child/day).

These results add substantial value to the limited literature on the costs and dietary impacts of nutrition-sensitive interventions targeting children in resource-limited settings, informing policy discussions and serving as critical inputs to future cost-effectiveness analyses focusing on disease outcomes.

Key message

Existing evidence on cost-effectiveness for nutrition improvement focuses on interventions to address specific diseases. We provide a novel participatory approach to assembling cost and impact data for 12 nutrition-sensitive interventions to improve diet quality in three countries: Ethiopia, Nigeria and India. Programs designed by stakeholders often use resource transfers to influence diets despite their high cost; programs altering food access have lower cost. Future work using these data will analyse net cost-effectiveness.

Big cities, small towns, and poor farmers: Evidence from Ethiopia

In Under-nutrition on July 10, 2018 at 6:06 am

World Development – Volume 106, June 2018, Pages 393-406

JoachimVandercasteelen, Seneshaw TemruBeyene, BartMinten, JohanSwinnen.

LICOS – Center for Institutions and Economic Performance, Department of Economics, University of Leuven, Waaistraat 6, Box 3511, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
Ethiopia Strategy Support Program, Ethiopian Development Research Institute, International Food Policy Research Institute, PO Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Highlights

  • Urban population in medium sized cities has doubled in the last decade in Africa.
  • Secondary towns have clear effects for rural migrants, but unclear how they affect rural producers.
  • The paper analyses the impact of city types (primate vs. secondary) and urban proximity on agricultural intensification outcomes of rural teff producers in Ethiopia.
  • Secondary towns affect the proximity relationship between the primate city and the teff prices and modern input use of rural producers.
  • Selling teff in primate cities results in higher teff intensification while (instrumented) urban distance has a negative effect.

 

Abstract

Urbanization is happening fast in the developing world and especially so in sub-Saharan Africa where growth rates of cities are among the highest in the world. While cities and, in particular, secondary towns, where most of the urban population in sub-Saharan Africa resides, affect agricultural practices in their rural hinterlands, this relationship is not well understood.

To fill this gap, we develop a conceptual model to analyze how farmers’ proximity to cities of different sizes affects agricultural prices and intensification of farming. We then test these predictions using large-scale survey data from producers of teff, a major staple crop in Ethiopia, relying on unique data on transport costs and road networks and implementing an array of econometric models.

We find that agricultural price behavior and intensification is determined by proximity to a city and the type of city. While proximity to cities has a strong positive effect on agricultural output prices and on uptake of modern inputs and yields on farms, the effects on prices and intensification measures are lower for farmers in the rural hinterlands of secondary towns compared to primate cities.

Cost effectiveness of community-based and in-patient therapeutic feeding programs to treat severe acute malnutrition in Ethiopia

In Under-nutrition on October 25, 2012 at 8:50 am

Tekeste AWondafrash MAzene GDeribe K.

Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2012 Mar 19;10:4

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Sidama Zone, Ethiopia compared to facility based therapeutic feeding center (TFC).

METHODS:

A cost effectiveness analysis comparing costs and outcomes of two treatment programmes was conducted. The societal perspective, which considers costs to all sectors of the society, was employed. Outcomes and health service costs of CTC and TFC were obtained from Save the Children USA (SC/USA) CTC and TFC programme, government health services and UNICEF(in kind supplies) cost estimates of unit costs. Parental costs were estimated through interviewing 306 caretakers. Cost categories were compared and a single cost effectiveness ratio of costs to treat a child with SAM in each program (regardless of outcome) was computed and compared.

RESULTS:

A total of 328 patient cards/records of children treated in the programs were reviewed; out of which 306 (157 CTC and 149 TFC) were traced back to their households to interview their caretakers. The cure rate in TFC was 95.36% compared to 94.30% in CTC. The death rate in TFC was 0% and in CTC 1.2%. The mean cost per child treated was $284.56 in TFC and $134.88 in CTC. The institutional cost per child treated was $262.62 in TFC and $128.58 in CTC. Out of these institutional costs in TFC 46.6% was personnel cost. In contrast, majority (43.2%) of the institutional costs in CTC went to ready to use therapeutic food (RUTF). The opportunity cost per caretaker in the TFC was $21.01 whereas it was $5.87 in CTC. The result of this study shows that community based CTC was two times more cost effective than TFC.

CONCLUSION:

CTC was found to be relatively more cost effective than TFC in this setting. This indicates that CTC is a viable approach on just economic grounds in addition to other benefits such improved access, sustainability and appropriateness documented elsewhere. If costs of RUTF can be reduced such as through local production the CTC costs per child can be further reduced as RUTF constitutes the highest cost in these study settings.

 

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