evidence-based blog of Filippo Dibari

Posts Tagged ‘HIV’

Exploring the paradox: double burden of malnutrition in rural South Africa

In Over-nutrition, Under-nutrition on April 18, 2014 at 7:11 am

by Kimani-Murage EW.

Glob Health Action. 2013 Jan 24;6:19249

(download)

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This article is a review of the PhD thesis by Elizabeth Kimani-Murage that explores the double burden of malnutrition in rural South Africa. This is in the context of a worryingly rapid increase in obesity and obesity-related diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) including South Africa, and in the wake of on-going nutrition transition and lifestyle changes in these countries.

OBJECTIVE:

To understand the profiles of malnutrition among children and adolescents in a poor, high HIV prevalent, transitional society in a middle-income country.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in 2007 targeting 4,000 children and adolescents aged 1-20 years. In addition, HIV testing was carried out on children aged 1-5 years and Tanner pubertal assessment among adolescents aged 9-20 years.

RESULTS:

The study shows stunting at an early age and adolescent obesity, particularly among girls, that co-exists in the same socio-geographic population. The study also shows that HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes in children and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Significant predictors of undernutrition at an early age, documented at individual, household, and community levels, include child’s HIV status, age and birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Significant predictors of overweight/obesity and risk for metabolic disease during adolescence, documented at individual and household levels include child’s age, sex, and pubertal development, household-level food security, socio-economic status, and household head’s highest education level.

CONCLUSIONS:

The combination of early stunting and adolescent obesity raises critical concerns in the wake of the rising public health importance of metabolic diseases in LMICs. This is because, both paediatric obesity and adult short stature are risk factors for metabolic syndrome and metabolic diseases in adulthood. Clearly, policies and interventions to address malnutrition in this and other transitional societies need to be double-pronged and gender-sensitive.

– – –
NB – To follow up this topic (or others), enter your email in the rectangle at the bottom/right side of this page (you can un-subscribe any time).

The Enabling Effect of Food Assistance in Improving Adherence and/or Treatment Completion for Antiretroviral Therapy and Tuberculosis Treatment: A Literature Review

In Under-nutrition on April 4, 2014 at 3:17 pm

by Saskia de Pee, Nils Grede, Divya Mehra and Martin Bloem.

AIDS Behav – 2014

(download)

Abstract

 Socioeconomic costs of HIV and TB and the difficulty of maintaining optimal treatment are well documented. Social protection measures such as food assistance may be required to offset some of the treatment related costs as well as to ensure food security and maintain good health of the affected individual and household.

Programmes have started placing greater emphasis on treatment adherence and are looking for proven interventions that can optimize it. This paper looks at the effect of food assistance for enabling treatment adherence and reviews studies that used food assistance to promote adherence.

Eight of ten studies found that provision of food can improve adherence and/or treatment completion for HIV care and treatment, ART and TB-DOTS. This indicates that food provision is not only a biological, but also a behavioural intervention, and underscores that unresolved food insecurity can be an impediment to treatment adherence and consequently to good treatment outcomes.

– – –
NB – To follow up this topic (or others), enter your email in the rectangle at the bottom/right side of this page (you can un-subscribe any time).

Use, perceptions, and acceptability of a ready-to-use supplementary food among adult HIV patients initiating antiretroviral treatment: a qualitative study in Ethiopia

In Under-nutrition on March 30, 2014 at 6:38 am
Mette Frahm Olsen, Markos Tesfaye, Pernille Kaestel, Henrik Friis, and Lotte Holm
Patient Preference and Adherence 2013:7 481–488 (download)

Objectives

Ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSF) are used increasingly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programs, but little is known about how it is used and viewed by patients. We used qualitative methods to explore the use, perceptions, and acceptability of RUSF among adult HIV patients in Jimma, Ethiopia.

Methods

The study obtained data from direct observations and 24 in-depth interviews with HIV patients receiving RUSF.

Results

Participants were generally very motivated to take RUSF and viewed it as beneficial. RUSF was described as a means to fill a nutritional gap, to “rebuild the body,” and protect it from harmful effects of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Many experienced nausea and vomiting when starting the supplement. This caused some to stop supplementation, but the majority adapted to RUSF. The supplement was eaten separately from meal situations and only had a little influence on household food practices. RUSF was described as food with “medicinal qualities,” which meant that many social and religious conventions related to food did not apply to it. The main concerns about RUSF related to the risk of HIV disclosure and its social consequences.

Conclusion

HIV patients view RUSF in a context of competing livelihood needs. RUSF intake was motivated by a strong wish to get well, while the risk of HIV disclosure caused concerns. Despite the motivation for improving health, the preservation of social networks was prioritized, and nondisclosure was often a necessary strategy. Food sharing and religious fasting practices were not barriers to the acceptability of RUSF. This study highlights the importance of ensuring that supplementation strategies, like other HIV services, are compatible with the sociocultural context of patients.

– – –
NB – To follow up this topic (or others), enter your email in the rectangle at the bottom/right side of this page (you can un-subscribe any time).

Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Are Feasible As a Breastmilk Replacement for HIV-Exposed Infants from 24 to 48 Weeks of Age

In Under-nutrition on March 23, 2013 at 5:54 am

by Valerie L. FlaxMargaret E. BentleyCharles S. ChaselaDumbani KayiraMichael G. HudgensKopekani Z. KachecheCharity ChavulaAthena P. KourtisDenise J. JamiesonCharles M. van der Horst, Linda S. Adair

 

J. Nutr. March 6, 2013 – (download)

 

Abstract

The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) Study randomized HIV-infected mothers and their infants to receive either maternal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) during lactation or no LNS and then to 1 of 3 antiretroviral drug (ARV) arms (maternal, infant, or no drugs).

Assigned interventions were provided from 0 to 28 wk and all infants (n = 1619) were given LNS during (24–28 wk) and following (28–48 wk) weaning. This paper assesses the feasibility of infant LNS as a breastmilk replacement and uses longitudinal random effects models to examine associations of interventions, morbidity, and season with weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and BMI-for-age (BMIZ) Z-scores from 24 to 48 wk.

Infant LNS adherence was high (94.1% ate it daily). From 24 to 48 wk, mean WAZ (−0.42 to −0.76 SD; P < 0.001) and LAZ (−0.93 to −1.56 SD; P< 0.001) steadily declined, whereas BMIZ remained >0 throughout. A higher LAZ was associated with assignment to the maternal LNS arm (β=0.19; P < 0.05). Lower WAZ and BMIZ were associated with seasonal food insecurity (β=−0.08 and −0.09, respectively; both P < 0.001), fever (β=−0.07 and −0.13; both P < 0.001), diarrhea (β=−0.19 and −0.23; both P < 0.001), and assignment to the infant ARV arm (β=−0.17 and −0.17; both P < 0.05).

The magnitude of the season and morbidity effects was small and BAN infants had higher weights and lengths than their counterparts in the general population.

High LNS adherence and the modest impact of morbidity on growth indicate that LNS is a feasible breastmilk replacement for HIV-exposed infants weaned early, but controlled trials are needed to quantify the effects of LNS on growth in this population.

Six-Month Mortality among HIV-Infected Adults Presenting for Antiretroviral Therapy with Unexplained Weight Loss, Chronic Fever or Chronic Diarrhea in Malawi

In Under-nutrition on November 25, 2012 at 8:14 am

by Monique van Lettow, Ann Åkesson, Alexandra L. C. Martiniuk, Andrew Ramsay, Adrienne K. Chan, Suzanne T. Anderson, Anthony D. Harries, Elizabeth Corbett, Robert S. Heyderman, Rony Zachariah, Richard A. Bedell

from PLOs November 19, 2012

(downlowad the paper)

 

Abstract

Background

In sub-Saharan Africa, early mortality is high following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated 6-month outcomes and factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected adults being assessed for ART initiation and presenting with weight loss, chronic fever or diarrhea, and with negative TB sputum microscopy.

Methods

A prospective cohort study was conducted in Malawi, investigating mortality in relation to ART uptake, microbiological findings and treatment of opportunistic infection (OIs), 6 months after meeting ART eligibility criteria.

Results

Of 469 consecutive adults eligible for ART, 74(16%) died within 6 months of enrolment, at a median of 41 days (IQR 20–81). 370(79%) started ART at a median time of 18 days (IQR 7–40) after enrolment. Six-month case-fatality rates were higher in patients with OIs; 25/121(21%) in confirmed/clinical TB and 10/50(20%) with blood stream infection (BSI) compared to 41/308(13%) in patients with no infection identified. Median TB treatment start was 27 days (IQR 17–65) after enrolment and mortality [8 deaths (44%)] was significantly higher among 18 culture-positive patients with delayed TB diagnosis compared to patients diagnosed clinically and treated promptly with subsequent culture confirmation [6/34 (18%);p = 0.04]. Adjusted multivariable analysis, excluding deaths in the first 21 days, showed weight loss >10%, low CD4 count, severe anemia, laboratory-only TB diagnosis, and not initiating ART to be independently associated with increased risk of death.

Conclusions

Mortality remains high among chronically ill patients eligible for ART. Prompt initiation of ART is vital: more than half of deaths were among patients who never started ART. Diagnostic and treatment delay for TB was strongly associated with risk of death. More than half of deaths occurred without identification of a specific infection. ART programmes need access to rapid point-of-care-diagnostic tools for OIs. The role of early empiric OI treatment in this population requires further evaluation in clinical trials.

– – –

NB – To follow up this topic (or others), enter your email in the rectangle at the bottom/right side of this page (you can un-subscribe any time).

Predictors of stunting, wasting and underweight among Tanzanian children born to HIV-infected women

In Under-nutrition on October 24, 2012 at 7:52 am

McDonald CMKupka RManji KPOkuma JBosch RJAboud SKisenge RSpiegelman DFawzi WWDuggan CP.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 3

Abstract

Background/Objectives: Children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are susceptible to undernutrition, but modifiable risk factors and the time course of the development of undernutrition have not been well characterized.

The objective of this study was to identify maternal, socioeconomic and child characteristics that are associated with stunting, wasting and underweight among Tanzanian children born to HIV-infected mothers, followed from 6 weeks of age for 24 months.

Subjects/Methods: Maternal and socioeconomic characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, data pertaining to the infant’s birth were collected immediately after delivery, morbidity histories and anthropometric measurements were performed monthly. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards methods were used to assess the association between potential predictors and the time to first episode of stunting, wasting and underweight.

Results: A total of 2387 infants (54.0% male) were enrolled and followed for a median duration of 21.2 months. The respective prevalence of prematurity (<37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2500 g) was 15.2% and 7.0%; 11.3% of infants were HIV-positive at 6 weeks. Median time to first episode of stunting, wasting and underweight was 8.7, 7.2 and 7.0 months, respectively. Low maternal education, few household possessions, low infant birth weight, child HIV infection and male sex were all independent predictors of stunting, wasting and underweight. In addition, preterm infants were more likely to become wasted and underweight, whereas those with a low Apgar score at birth were more likely to become stunted.

Conclusions: Interventions to improve maternal education and nutritional status, reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and increase birth weight may lower the risk of undernutrition among children born to HIV-infected women.

– – –

NB – To follow up this topic (or others), enter your email in the rectangle at the bottom/right side of this page (you can un-subscribe any time).

Development of a crossover-randomized trial method to determine the acceptability and safety of novel ready-to-use therapeutic foods (ahead of print)

In Under-nutrition on September 19, 2012 at 5:07 pm

by Dibari F, Bahwere P, Huerga H, Irena AH, Owino V, Collins S, Seal A.

Nutrition (article in press).

Abstract

Objective: To develop a method for determining the acceptability and safety of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) before clinical trialing. Acceptability was defined using a combination of three consumption, nine safety, and six preference criteria. These were used to compare a soy/maize/sorghum RUTF (SMS-RUTFh), designed for the rehabilitation of human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis (HIV/TB) wasted adults, with a peanut-butter/milk-powder paste (P-RUTF; brand: Plumpy’nut) designed for pediatric treatment.

Methods: A cross-over, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in Kenya. Ten days of repeated measures of product intake by 41 HIV/TB patients, >18 y old, body mass index (BMI) 18-24 kg/m^2, 250 g were offered daily under direct observation as a replacement lunch meal. Consumption, comorbidity, and preferences were recorded.

Results: The study arms had similar age, sex, marital status, initial BMI, and middle upper-arm circumference. No carryover effect or serious adverse events were found. SMS-RUTFh energy intake was not statistically different from the control, when adjusted for BMI on day 1, and the presence of throat sores. General preference, taste, and sweetness scores were higher for SMS-RUTFh compared to the control (P < 0.05). Most consumption, safety, and preference criteria for SMS-RUTFh were satisfied except for the average number of days of nausea (0.16 versus 0.09 d) and vomiting (0.04 versus 0.02 d), which occurred with a higher frequency (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: SMS-RUTFh appears to be acceptable and can be safely clinically trialed, if close monitoring of vomiting and nausea is included. The method reported here is a useful and feasible approach for testing the acceptability of ready-to-use foods in low income countries.

– – –

NB – To follow up this topic (or others), enter your email in the rectangle at the bottom/right side of this page (you can un-subscribe any time)

Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) improves undernutrition among ART-treated, HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

In Under-nutrition on September 1, 2012 at 3:31 pm

Bruno F Sunguya, Krishna C Poudel, Linda B Mlunde, Keiko Otsuka, Junko Yasuoka, David P Urassa, Namala P Mkopi and Masamine Jimba

Nutrition Journal 2012, 11:60 

(entire doc)

Abstract

Background

HIV/AIDS is associated with an increased burden of undernutrition among children even under antiretroviral therapy (ART). To treat undernutrition, WHO endorsed the use of Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) that can reduce case fatality and undernutrition among ART-naive HIV-positive children. However, its effects are not studied among ART-treated, HIV-positive children. Therefore, we examined the association between RUTF use with underweight, wasting, and stunting statuses among ART-treated HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted from September-October 2010. The target population was 219 ART-treated, HIV-positive children and the same number of their caregivers. We used questionnaires to measure socio-economic factors, food security, RUTF-use, and ART-duration. Our outcome variables were underweight, wasting, and stunting statuses.

Results

Of 219 ART-treated, HIV-positive children, 140 (63.9%) had received RUTF intervention prior to the interview. The percentages of underweight and wasting among non-RUTF-receivers were 12.4% and 16.5%; whereas those of RUTF-receivers were 3.0% (P = 0.006) and 2.8% (P = 0.001), respectively. RUTF-receivers were less likely to have underweight (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) =0.19, CI: 0.04, 0.78), and wasting (AOR = 0.24, CI: 0.07, 0.81), compared to non RUTF-receivers. Among RUTF receivers, children treated for at least four months (n = 84) were less likely to have underweight (P = 0.049), wasting (P = 0.049) and stunting (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Among HIV-positive children under ART, the provision of RUTF for at least four months was associated with low proportions of undernutrition status. RUTF has a potential to improve undernutrition among HIV-positive children under ART in the clinical settings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

– – –

NB – To follow up this topic (or others): enter your email in the rectangle at the bottom/right side of this page (you can un-subscribe any time)

Human milk oligosaccharide concentration and risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding

In Under-nutrition on August 16, 2012 at 6:12 am

Lars Bode, Louise Kuhn, Hae-Young Kim, Lauren Hsiao,Caroline Nissan, Moses Sinkala, Chipepo Kankasa, Mwiya Mwiya, Donald M Thea, and Grace M Aldrovandi

Am J Clin Nutr – August 15, 2012

 

Abstract

Background: The inefficiency of HIV breast-milk transmission may be caused by the presence of immunologically active factors, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs).

Objective: We investigated whether HMO concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of postnatal HIV transmission.

Design: A nested case-control study was conducted within a larger cohort study of HIV-infected women and their infants followed from birth to 24 mo in Lusaka, Zambia. Breast-milk samples collected at 1 mo from 81 HIV-infected women who transmitted via breastfeeding, a random sample of 86 HIV-infected women who did not transmit despite breastfeeding, and 36 uninfected breastfeeding women were selected. Total and specific HMO concentrations were measured by HPLC and compared between groups with adjustment for confounders by using logistic regression.

Results: HIV-infected women with total HMOs above the median (1.87 g/L) were less likely to transmit via breastfeeding (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.97; P = 0.04) after adjustment for CD4 count and breast-milk HIV RNA concentrations; a trend toward higher concentrations of lacto-N-neotetraose being associated with reduced transmission (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.23, 1.04; P = 0.06) was also observed. The proportion of 3′-sialyllactose (3′-SL) per total HMOs was higher among transmitting than among nontransmitting women (P = 0.003) and correlated with higher plasma and breast-milk HIV RNA and lower CD4 counts. Neither Secretor nor Lewis status distinguished between transmitting and nontransmitting women.

Conclusions: Higher concentrations of non-3′-SL HMOs were associated with protection against postnatal HIV transmission independent of other known risk factors. Further study of these novel, potentially anti-HIV components of breast milk is warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00310726.

Context-specific choice of food aid items (USAID)

In Under-nutrition on August 12, 2012 at 10:22 am


(click directly on the flowchart for an enlarged view)

In a recent document (2011), USAID, in collaboration with the UN Global Nutrition Cluster, UNHCR WFP and other organizations, suggest which type of programme and food commodities are more adequate.

However, it was concluded that there is no one food product that can meet every kind of programming goal, and no one programming approach that fits all needs.

The same panel  developed decision trees and few flow charts to help policy makers and donors in taking more informed decisions about programmes and choice of food-products.

The original program guidance is available here, whereas another version of the same, visible above, was adjusted in one chapter of my PhD thesis.

%d bloggers like this: