evidence-based blog of Filippo Dibari

Posts Tagged ‘iron absorption’

Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Do Not Affect the Risk of Malaria or Respiratory Morbidity in 6- to 18-Month-Old Malawian Children in a Randomized Controlled Trial

In Under-nutrition on September 28, 2014 at 7:03 am

by Charles Mangani, Per Ashorn, Kenneth Maleta, John Phuka,Chrissie Thakwalakwa,Kathryn Dewey, Mark Manary, Taneli Puumalainen, and Yin Bun Cheung

from J. Nutr. November 1, 2014

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Abstract

Background: There is evidence to support the use of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) to promote child growth and development in low-income countries, but there is also a concern regarding the safety of using iron-fortified products in malaria-endemic areas.

Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that 6- to 18-mo-old rural Malawian children receiving iron-containing (6 mg/d) LNSs would not have excess morbidity compared with infants receiving no supplementation.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial allocated 840 children to receive daily supplementation with 54 g/d LNS with milk protein base (milk-LNS), 54 g/d LNS with soy protein base (soy-LNS), 71 g/d corn-soy blend (CSB), or no supplementation from 6 to 18 mo of age. Morbidity was compared using a non-inferiority margin set at 20% excess morbidity in supplemented groups compared with the nonsupplemented group.

Results: Baseline characteristics were similar across groups. The proportion of days with febrile illness between 6 and 18 mo was 4.9%, and there were no differences between the groups: 4.9% (95% CI: 4.3, 5.5%), 4.5% (95% CI: 3.9, 5.1%), 4.7% (95% CI: 4.1, 5.3%), and 5.5% (95% CI: 4.7–6.3%) in the milk-LNS, soy-LNS, CSB, and control groups, respectively. The proportion of days with respiratory problems and diarrhea between 6 and 18 mo also did not differ between groups. Compared with controls, the incident rate ratio (95% CI) for clinical malaria was 0.80 (0.59, 1.09), 0.77 (0.56, 1.06), and 0.79 (0.58, 1.08) in milk-LNS, soy-LNS, and CSB, respectively, with 95% CIs confirming non-inferiority. The incidence of febrile episodes, diarrhea, respiratory problems or admission to hospital, prevalence of malaria parasitemia throughout the follow-up, and mean change in hemoglobin concentration from baseline were also similar between the groups.

Conclusions: Daily supplementation with 54 g of milk-based or soy protein–based LNS or 71 g of CSB did not result in increases in malaria or respiratory morbidity in children in a malaria-endemic setting. However, we could not conclude whether LNSs did or did not increase diarrheal morbidity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00524446.

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Iron bioavailability from a lipid-based complementary food fortificant mixed with millet porridge can be optimized by adding phytase and ascorbic acid but not by using a mixture of ferrous sulfate and sodium iron EDTA

In Under-nutrition on March 22, 2014 at 9:14 am

by Cercamondi CI, Egli IM, Mitchikpe E, Tossou F, Hessou J, Zeder C, Hounhouigan JD, Hurrell RF

J Nutr. 2013 Aug;143(8):1233-9

Abstract

Home fortification with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) is a promising approach to improve bioavailable iron and energy intake of young children in developing countries.

To optimize iron bioavailability from an LNS named complementary food fortificant (CFF), 3 stable isotope studies were conducted in 52 young Beninese children. Test meals consisted of millet porridge mixed with CFF and ascorbic acid (AA).

Study 1 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortifed meals with meals fortified with a mixture of FeSO4 and NaFeEDTA. Study 2 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortifed meals without or with extra AA. Study 3 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortified meals with meals containing phytase added prior to consumption, once without or once with extra AA. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes.

In study 1, iron absorption from FeSO4 (8.4%) was higher than that from the mixture of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 (5.9%; P < 0.05). In study 2, the extra AA increased absorption (11.6%) compared with the standard AA concentration (7.3%; P < 0.001). In study 3, absorption from meals containing phytase without or with extra AA (15.8 and 19.9%, respectively) increased compared with meals without phytase (8.0%; P < 0.001). The addition of extra AA to meals containing phytase increased absorption compared with the test meals containing phytase without extra AA (P < 0.05).

These findings suggest that phytase and AA, and especially a combination of the two, but not a mixture of FeSO4 and NaFeEDTA would be useful strategies to increase iron bioavailability from a CFF mixed with cereal porridge.

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